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البحث العلمي - Scientific Research

The Importance and Methods of Scientific Research in Developing Knowledge

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In a previous article, we introduced that scientific research is a human intellectual effort organized according to a specific methodology in research. It includes specific steps and approaches leading to knowledge about the universe, self, and society, contributing to the development of life patterns and solving problems faced by individuals and communities.

 

Scientific research is an organized process of gathering information and logically analyzing it for specific purposes.


There are several methods for acquiring knowledge:

Sensory Experience

The senses are the human window to knowledge (seeing, smelling, tasting, touching), but sensory experience alone is insufficient for confirming knowledge, as senses can be deceptive. For example, hearing a gunshot sound which turns out to be a car or motorcycle exhaust, or mistaking a mirage for water.

 

Agreement with Others

 As individuals live in a social environment that influences and is influenced by them, they seek to share their sensory experiences with others. This comparison can validate one’s sensory perceptions. However, disagreements can still arise, as exemplified by differing views among experts, necessitating the search for a more certain source of knowledge.

 

Expert Opinion 

Individuals often face complex problems they cannot solve alone, leading them to consult qualified experts in various knowledge fields. These experts possess in-depth knowledge that can aid in solving these problems.

 

Logic 

Deductive logic states that what is true for a category of things or events is true for each of them. For example,

 using deductive logic in professions like law and investigation leads to conclusions based on given facts or observations.

Deductive logic says that what is true of a class of things or events is true of any one of them. Example:

Every Successful Initiative (Major Introduction)

Masarat Initiative (Minor Introduction)

Successful pathways (result)

 

Deductive logic has been used as an important means of reaching knowledge for many professionals, such as lawyers and investigators, as deductive logic leads them to reach conclusions from given facts or derived from sensory observations.

Scientific Method 

The scientific method fundamentally tests hypotheses by linking incidents or facts to establish these connections as truths.

 

Goals of Scientific Research

 Scientific research aims to:

 

Description (Understanding)

 The process of knowledge begins with description, which refers to the researcher’s ability to establish evidence that a certain phenomenon actually exists. This includes the ability to determine the extent of its occurrence. The process involves identifying the manifestations of psychological and educational characteristics, and understanding all the variables associated with them in terms of determining the degree of each variable.

 

For example, Piaget’s study began with observing the behavior of his children, followed by an accurate description of it.”

Explanation

 Seeking the causes or preceding factors of a phenomenon and presenting them as relationships or generalizations.

 

Prediction

 The researcher’s ability to predict an event before it actually occurs is exemplified by teachers who understand the factors that lead students to excel academically. They are able to foresee which of their students will excel and which will not.

 

Control: The process of controlling the conditions leading to a phenomenon, aiming not to control the phenomenon itself but the causes leading to it.

 

When teachers learn from educational literature that frustration leads to aggressive behaviors, they can, based on this assumption, control student behavior. Therefore, it is essential for teachers to satisfy student needs at varying levels of fulfillment, which include:


Satisfaction

Enhancing belonging Expression

In the next article, we will discuss the assumptions of the scientific method, the ethics of educational research, and the problems of scientific research.

When the teacher does not satisfy the students’ needs, he pushes them to engage in aggressive behavior.

 

Author: Mahmoud Al-Saloum, School Education Program Leader at Masarat Initiative

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